Hurricanes are optimized cyclone collectors, considering how interparticle agglomeration affects particle collection efficiency 


Why are Cyclones Generally Inefficient? The Traditional Approach

Since the first patent was issued in 1886, cyclones have been generally designed and improved by empirical means. Building a reliable efficiency prediction method is very difficult due to the modeling complexity, since these pieces of equipment handle multiphase and highly turbulent flows, and because there is an overwhelming number of prototypes that have to be built in order to confirm the effect of changing dimension ratios on cyclone performance.

Fact is that the efficiency of general cyclones is insufficient for clients' needs, especially for small particle sizes (<10 µm).


Particle Agglomeration in Cyclones

ACS has been investigating particle agglomeration in cyclones for several years. Understanding agglomeration in cyclones has helped ACS build more accurate models of collection efficiency estimation, capable of explaining why sub-micrometer particles are often captured with much higher efficiency than predicted by standard models. Indeed, fine particles tend to form agglomerates (clusters) with much higher collection efficiency than those of the primary particles. Agglomeration increases in the presence of wide particle size distributions, long residence times in the cyclone and high inlet particle concentrations. This knowledge has been incorporated into ACS numerical simulation tool - the PACyc (Particle Agglomeration in Cyclones, Chemical Engineering Journal 162 (2010) 861-876) algorithm. This has been crucial in improving the design of ACS technologies, which have demonstrated to achieve significant reduction in emissions when compared with other high efficiency cyclones.


Optimizing Cyclone's Efficiency

Supported by the PACyc Model, and considering several economical and operation constraints (such as size and pressure loss), with numerical optimization it is possible to generate millions of virtual prototypes within an affordable time period, and to observe the impact of each dimension ratio on the cyclone performance.


Considering this approach as the best path to obtain truly optimized cyclones, some theories of cyclone collection and pressure loss were chosen for each application, and afterwards improved for predicting collection efficiencies for new geometries. These numerical optimization problems have resulted in many customized cyclones but also in different new families of cyclones, some of those patented, which are used for each given application.


Different Objectives - Different Cyclones

Indeed, different industrial cases have different needs resulting in very different cyclones, for which the optimization functions may be minimizing cost, minimizing space, among others. Each cyclone family can be further fine tuned for each client in order to meet the objectives. When high efficiency is required and particles are prone to agglomerate, which includes most of the handled dusts; recent developed Hurricane MK line of cyclones (patent pending) can be a solution to achieve emissions as low as 30mg/Nm3.


The Hurricane MK - The Agglomerator Cyclone

In 2014, a better understanding of agglomeration has allowed ACS to develop a completely new line of cyclone geometries, different from any other in the world: the Hurricane MK. It was obtained by combining stochastic numerical optimization with the PACyc model. This represents a giant leap in terms of efficiency for all ACS products, as these collectors can be used in ReCyclone configurations too, as presented ahead. 
Hurricane MK cyclones, once adjusted for a particular process, maximize particle agglomeration. For PSDs that favor clustering, as biomass and coal fly ash, emissions can be as low as 30mg/Nm3 (patent pending)



Amorim e Irmãos (EC - Biomass and Coal Combustion)

Mechanical ReCyclone® MH system for PM emission control in a 8 000m3/h at 280ºC cork dust boiler.  

  • This equipment is composed by 6 hurricane cyclones and 4 mechanical recirculators.
  • It was installed to replace a cyclone deduster, which was above the legal emissions limit (150mg/Nm3).
  • Emissions: 30-90mg/Nm3
Amorim & Irmãos, S.A.
Portugal
2003
Vimasol 2011 (EC - Biomass Dryers)

Hurricane system to capture particles from a sawdust dryer operating in a wood pellet plant, with a flow (8,074m3/h at 110 ºC.)

  • The system is composed by 4 hurricane cyclones with ø750mm 
  • It will be upgraded with 1 ReCyclone MH® with ø1,300mm to comply with 50mg/Nm3.
  • Expected emissions: < 150 mg/Nm3
  • Measured emissions: < 108 mg/Nm3
Vimasol
Portugal
2011

Hurricane system to reduce PM from Syngas emanating from a gasifier with a 425m3/h gas flow rate at 160ºC.

  • The system is composed by 1 hurricane cyclone
  • Efficiency is expected to reach 99.5% with a pressure drop of 1.7 kPa.
  • Expected emissions: 36mg/Nm3
Anguil
USA
2012
Arla Foods (RP - Food ingredients)

Hurricane system aiming to increase the recovery of milk proteins powder after a spray dryer. It has a capacity of 92 000m3/h at 65ºC effective flow rate.  

  • The equipment is composed by 2 cyclones. It was installed to replace an existing high efficiency cyclone from the spray dryer manufacturer in order to increase powder recovery. 
  • Expected efficiency: 98.9-99.3%
  • Measured efficiency: 99.1%
Arla Foods
Scandinavia
2012
HR (Spray Dryer) Arla
Hurricane HR Cyclone System to Maximize Milk Protein from a Multi Stage Spray Dryer at Arla Foods (92 140 m3/h at 65ºC)
  • Inlet concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [16 928]
  • Predicted efficiency (%) [98.9 - 99.3]
Arla Foods
Denmark
2012
HR (Cement) Duna Drava
Hurricane HR cyclone system to limit ash particle content in the exhaust hot gases of the preheater tower at Duna-Dráva Kft ( 37 513 m3/h at 327ºC ).
  • Inlet concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [42 100]
  • Guaranteed efficiency (%) [>87]
Duna Drava Cement
Hungary
2013
HR (Spray Dryer) API
Hurricane HR Cyclone System to increase the yield of powder captured after a pharmaceutical spray-dryer at Hovione (1450 Kg/h N2 at 85ºC)
  • Inlet particulate load (Kg/h) [5-6]
  • Predicted efficiency (%) [>97%]
Hovione
Portugal
2012
HR (Steel) Efacec
Hurricane HR Cyclone System to capture the pressboards dust coming from the cutting and scarfing operations at Efacec Energia (13 500 m3/h at 30ºC)
  • Inlet concentration (mg/Nm3) [2 600]
  • Guaranteed emissions after Hurricane System (mg/Nm3) [9]
Efacec Energia
Portugal
2010
HR (Steel) Spanish Steel Making Industry
Hurricane Cyclone System to recover white slag powder resulting from the molten steel and additives in a reinforcement bar production at an important Spanish steelmaking industry (158 000 m3/h at 165ºC)
  • Inlet particulate load (g/m3) [375]
  • Predicted efficiency (%) [>97%]
Confidential
Spain
-
HR Glowood
Hurricane HR cyclones to reduce emissions of dryer cyclones at GLOWOOD pellet plant (71 839 m3/h at 87ºC)
  • Inlet Concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [702]
  • Expected Emissions (mg/Nm3 dry) [58]
Glowood
Portugal
2014
HR MK Flucal
Hurricane MK cyclone system for PM Emission reduction on a 3MWth biomass boiler at AVISABOR (12 500m3/h at 240ºC)
  • Inlet Concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [1.250]
  • Expected Emissions (mg/Nm3 dry) [42]
Avisabor
Portugal
2015
MK Miremont
Hurricane MK system to reduce particulate matter from a wood bark and forestry waste boiler under 30 mg/Nm3 at Sciérie de Miremont ( 200 m3/h at 190ºC )
  • Inlet Concentration (mg/Nm3 dry) [702]
  • Expected Emissions (mg/Nm3 dry) [58]
Sciérie de Miremont
France
2014
Hurricane HR cyclones to reduce particulate matter emissions from a drying tower of powder milk at Nestlé

Hurricane HR cyclones to reduce particulate matter (pm) emissions under 75mg/Nm3 from a drying tower of powder milk at Nestlé ( 31 100 m3/h at 80ºC )

  • Inlet concentration (mg/Nm3) [245]
  • Gas flow temperature (ºC) [70-80]
Nestlé
Azores, Portugal
2012
Hurricane HR Cyclone System for Paprika Powder Recovery and Emission Control on three milling lines (11011 m3/h at 48ºC)
Hurricane HR Cyclone System for Paprika Powder Recovery and Emission Control on three milling lines at JUAN JOSÉ ALBARRACÍN, S.A (11 011 m3/h at 48ºC)
  • Powder concentration at inlet (mg/Nm3) [272]
  • Guaranteed maximum emissions (mg/Nm3) [30]
  • Expected separation efficiency (%) [97.4 - 97.9]
JUAN JOSÉ ALBARRACÍN, S .A.
Murcia
2015
Hurricane HR Cyclones for Sonae Indústria, Mangualde
Hurricane HR Cyclones to capture fine fly ash particulate enabling the use of wood waste fired thermal oil heater for Sonae Indústria ( 104 140 m3/h at 303ºC )
Verified Separation Efficiency (%) [91.2]
Verified Outlet Concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [<77]
Verified total pressure drop (Kpa) [1]
Sonae Industria
Mangualde, Portugal
2015
Hurricane HR cyclones to reduce emissions from wet woodchips grinding at Verdo Renewables
Hurricane HR Cyclones to reduce emissions from wet woodchips grinding at Verdo Renewables Ltd. (8 000 m3/h at 20ºC)
Expected emissions (mg/Nm3dry) [15]
Expected total pressure drop (Kpa) [1.2]
Verdo Renewables Ltd
Andover, UK
2015
Hurricane HR System to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler burning pellets ( Norbidel )
Hurricane HR System to reduce particulate matter from a biomass boiler burning pellets under 50 mg/Nm3 for NORBIDEL ( 10 500 m3/h at 220ºC )
Expected maximum emissions ( mg/Nm) [<30]
Expected total pressure drop (Kpa) [1.2]
Norbidel, Fepsa
Porto, Portugal
2013
Hurricane HR Cyclones to Reducte Off-Gases From A Meat And Bones Mixture Gasifier At High Temperature.
Hurricane HR cyclones to reducte off-gases from a meat and bones mixture gasifier at CARECO ( 18.000 m3/h at 700ºC )
Actual flow rate ( m3/h ) [18 000]
Inlet concentration ( mg/Nm3dry ) [13 820]
Gas flow temperature (ºC) [700]
Careco | Luis Leal S.A.
Portugal
2013
Hurricane cyclones for powder recovery white slag
Hurricane Cyclones to recover white slag powder resulting from the molten steel and additives in the reinforcement bar production (158 500m3/h at 165ºC)
Dimension: 158.500 m3/h at 165ºC
Efficiency: >97 %
Corrugados Getafe
Madrid, Spain
2010
Hurricane HR Cyclones for cleaning of Black Powder in natural gas caused by the dragging in the pipes.
Hurricane HR Cyclones for cleaning of Black Powder in natural gas caused by the dragging in the pipes at EDP GÁS ( 842m3/h at 11ºC )
Actual Flow Rate (Am3/h) [842]
Inlet Concentration (mg/Nm3dry) [100]
Gas Flow Temperature (ºC) [11]
EDP GÁS
Porto, Portugal
2016
Hurricane MK Cyclones for PM emission reduction at Britton Timbers
Hurricane MK cyclone system for PM emission reduction on a 2.5MWth biomass boiler at Britton Timbers. (8 760m3/h at 328°C)

Emissions to Guarantee (mg/Nm3) [<80]
Expected total pressure drop (kPa) [0.9]
Measured Emissions in April/2016 (mg/Nm3) [48]

Britton Timbers
Smithton, Australia
2016
Hurricane HR System to reduce particulate matter emissions at KMW Energy
Hurricane HR cyclone system to reduce particulate matter emissions from a 600Hp biomass boiler burning bark at KMW Energy ( 27 959m3/h at 254°C )

Guaranteed emissions (mg/Rm3dry at 7%O2) [?150]

Expected emissions (mg/m3 | mg/Rm3dry at 7%O2) [36 | 108]

Expected pressure drop (kPa | in H2O)* [1.2 | 4.8]

* This pressure drop is only for the system, does not include ducts.
KMW Energy
Quebec, Canada
2017
Hurricane HR Cyclone system to capture pharmaceutical waste particles from the combined flow of a deduster and a tablet press machine for product waste compliance at Actavis/Teva (416m3/h at 20º).
Hurricane HR Cyclone system to capture pharmaceutical waste particles from the combined flow of a deduster and a tablet press machine for product waste compliance at Actavis/Teva (416m3/h at 20º).
Expected pressure drop (kPa) [1.8]
Expected removal efficiency (%) [98.3-98.6]
Actavis / Teva Pharmaceuticals
USA
2017
Hurricane
Hurricane
Steel and Ferroalloys
Hurricane
Hurricane
Biomass and Coal Combustion
Hurricane
Hurricane
Food Ingredients
Hurricane
Hurricane
Steel and Ferroalloys
Hurricane
Hurricane
Clinker Cooler and Pre-Heater Dedusting